UNITED STATES

EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

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NAREATIVE

OF THE

UNITED STATES

EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

DURING THE YEARS

1838, 1889, 1840, 1841, 1842.

BY

C H A E L E S WILKES, U. S. N.,

COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION,

MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, ETC.

IN FIVE VOLUMES, AND AN ATLAS.

VOL. IV.

PHILADELPHIA:

LEA & BLANCHARD.

1845.

A.

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ENTERED, ACCORDING TO THE ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE YEAR 1844,

BY CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N.,

IN THE clerk's OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

C. SHERMAN, PRINTER, 19 ST. JAMES STREET, PHILADELPHIA.

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CONTENTS OF VOL. IV.

CHAPTER I.

ARRIVAL OF THE KING AT HONOLULU-OUR VfSIT TO HIM-KEKAULUOHI-DWELLINGS AND GARDENS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS-DWELLINGS OF THE MISSIONARIES-MISSION- ARY PRESS-SEAMEN'S CHAPEI^POLITICAL INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS- MR. RICHARDS ENGAGED AS DIPLOMATIC AGENT-SUPREME COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENT -SECOND INTERVIEW WITH THE KING-HISTORV OF THE EVENTS THAT LED TO THE LAPLACE TREATY-FIRST ARRIVAL OF CATHOLIC PRIESTS-THEY ARE HOSPITABLY RECEIVED-THEY ARE SUSPECTED OF PROMOTING A REBELLION, AND EXPELLED - RUSSELL TREATY-ATTEMPT TO INTRODUCE PRIESTS UNDER ITS SANCTION-UNITED ACTION OF CAPTAINS DU PETIT THOUARS AND BELCHER -MORE PRIESTS ARRIVE -PENAL LAWS AGAINST CATHOLICS ENACTED - THEY ARE REPEALED AT THE INSTANCE OF THE AMERICAN MISSIONARIES-ARRIVAL OF CAPTAIN LAPLACE-HIS MANIFESTO-HIS DEMANDS-HIS PROSCRIPTION OF THE MISSIONARIES-CONDUCT OF THE FOREIGN RESIDENTS, AND OF THE NATIVE CHIEFS-SIGNATURE OF THE TREATY -LAPLACE DEMANDS AND OBTAINS A COMMERCIAL TREATY-HE LANDS IN ARMS TO CELEBRATE MASS-CONSEQUENCES OF THE LAPLACE TREATY-THE KING'S FEELINGS IN RELATION TO IT-HIS DESIRE TO BE RECOGNISED BY THE UNITED STATES-HIS REMONSTRANCE TO THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT-STATE OF CATHOLICISM-WRITTEN CONSTITUTION OF HAWAII- ADMINISTRATION OF THE LAWS-CRIMINAL PROCESS- ANCIENT LAWS-SUCCESSION TO THE THRONE-FEUDAL TENURES-PUNISHMENTS- TABOOS-PROMULGATION OF LAWS-ORIGIN OF FIEFS-DIVISION OF LANDS-EFFECTS OF THE NEW LAWS-TAXES-REVENUES-EXEMPTION FROM TAX-CRIMES-HAWAIIAN

MYTHOLOGY-TRADITIONS-ASTRONOMY-CALENDAR-IDEA OF ECLIPSES-KNOWLEDGE OF NAVIGATION-FEATS IN SWIMMING-SOCIAL ATTACHMENT AND TIES-INDOLENCE ASCRIBED TO THE NATIVES-THEIR AMUSEMENTS-HOLUA-PLAYING IN THE SURF-

DANCES-CARDS-SEE-SAW-NATIVE PHYSICIANS AND MEDICINE 3_5]

VOL. IV. g

vi CONTENTS.

CH A PTE R II.

SATURDAY IN HONOLULU— SUNDAY— CHURCHES— SCHOOLS— TALENT OF THE SCHOLARS FOR ARITHMETIC BURLAL-GROUND GRAVE OF DOUGLASS THE BOTANIST— PLAYS— MAIKA—BUHENEHENE THROWING THE LANCE— REPAIRS OF THE VESSELS— COURT- MARTIAI^PUNISHMENT OF SWEENY, AND TWO MARINES— DISCHARGE OF SWEENY- POLICE OF HONOLULU— ROADS— EXPEDITION OF THE TENDER— KOLOA— DR. PICKERING AND MR. BRACKENRIDGE'S EXCURSION— WAIMEA— DR. SCHOOF—HANAPEPE— CASCADE —CULTIVATION— DECREASING POPULATION— ITS CAUSES AGRICULTURE— SCHOOLS— CHURCH— ISLAND OF NIIHAU— DISTRICT OF KOLOA— JOURNEY ACROSS THE ISLAND OF KAUAI— RIVER WAINIHA— EXCURSION OF MESSRS. PEALE AND RICH— LIHUI— NAWILI- WILI— MR. AND MRS. LAFON— SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES— HANAWALE— DEBORAH— HER FISH-PONDS WATERFALL BEAUTIFUL GROVE TUTUI-NUT OIL WAIOLI MR. TIT- COMBS CULTURE OF SILK INDIGO DIVINE SERVICE CRUISE OF THE TENDER WAIUOLI MOUNTAIN— POPULATION OF HALELEA—RAWAILOA—WAIALUA— MOUNTAINS OF OAHU SCHOOLS OF WAIALUA CHURCH DISTRICT OF KOOLAU CLIMATE OF WAIALU A INDUSTRY SCHOOLS - CHURCH POPULATION INTEMPERANCE - EXCUR- SION TO THE KAALA MOUNTAINS EWA LAULOA FOSSIL-SHELLS CHURCH AND SCHOOLS OF EWA POPULATION EXCURSION TO WAIANAE MAUNA-KAALA SALT LAKE CAVES FISH-PONDS KANEOHE PEARL- RIVER HARBOUR -PRODUCTIONS OF PALIKOOLAU— ITS CLIMATE— SCHOOLS-RETURN OF THE FLYING-FISH— FISH-PONDS OF HONOLULU 55-92

CHAPTER III.

THE TENDER IS DESPATCHED TO HAWAII THE PORPOISE SAILS ON A SEPAR-ATE CRUISE- PREPARATIONS FOR THE ASCENT OF MAUNA LOA— KEALAKEAKUA— NAPOLO —FACE OF THE COUNTRY— ITS PRODUCTIONS— ITS CLIMATE— ITS IMPROVEMENTS— ITS POPULATION— SCHOOLS— DISEASES— MONUMENT TO MARK WHERE COOK WAS KILLED— DISTRICT OF KAILAU ITS CLIMATE ITS POPULATION— DWELLINGS— SCHOOLS— KUA- KJNI OR GOVERNOR ADAMS— INDUSTRY OF THE NATIVES OF KAILAU— TRADE— USEFUL ARTS-COTTON MANUFACTURE VICES DISEASES MISSIONARIES PLANTS-EXCUR- SION OF THE NATURALISTS— TEMPLE OF KAILI— MOUNTAIN GEESE— LAVA STREAMS- OLD CRATERS— GRAZING LANDS— ARRIVAL AT HILO AND RETURN TO HONOLULU- PLAN FOR THE FURTHER OPERATIONS OF THE SQUADRON— PEACOCK AND FLYING- FISH— CASE OF GIDEON SMITH-CASE OF CAPTAIN DOWSETT— PROPOSED EMPLOYMENT OF THE VINCENNES— SAILING OF THE PEACOCK AND TENDER 95—115

CONTENTS ^,jj

CHAPTER IV.

THE VINCENNES LEAVES HONOLULU - DRUNKEN PILOT - MESSRS. BRINSMADE AND JUDD ACCOMPANY US-KANAKAS-PASSAGE TO HILO-BAY OF HILO-DISTANT VIEW OF HAWAII-VIEW FROxM HILO BAY-OBSERVATORY ESTABLISHED AT WAIAKEA-HILO -STRENGTH OF THE PARTY FOR THE ASCENT OF THE MOUNTAIN - CONFUSION AMONG THE NATIVES-DEPARTURE FROM HILO-THE KING'S IFISH-PONDS-BYRON'S HILL OLAA PAHOIHOI LAVA KAPUAUHI IRON MORTAR TERRITORY OF PELE FIRST VIEW OF MAUNA LOA— VOLCANO OF KILAUEA— DEPARTURE FROM IT— SCARCITY OF WATER-CLINKERS-LOSS OF MR. BRINSMADE'S STOCK OF WATER -DESERTER THE WOODED REGION LEFT-CAVES-SUNDAY STATION-RAGSDALE JOINS THE PARTY —DR. JUDD GOES IN SEARCH OF SNOW-RECRUITING STATION— DESERTION OF THE NATIVES-FLAG STATION -UNPLEASANT NIGHT-LONGLEY IS MISSED-SUMMIT OF MAUNA LOA REACHED-ARRIVAL THERE OF MESSRS. JUDD AND PICKERING-CRATER RECONNOITRED-ORIGIN OF THE CLINKERS-CHRISTMAS DAY-LONGLEY IS FOUND- VISIT TO THE RECRUITING STATION-RETURN TO THE SUMMIT-ARRIVAL OF PROVI- SIONS FROM THE SHIP-PENDULUM-HOUSE ERECTED-NEW YEAR'S DAY— PHENOMENA OF THE CLOUDS-SURVEY OF THE SUMMIT BEG UN-PENDULUM EXPERIMENTS BEGUN -SEVERE STORM-SURVEY OF THE CRATER-EXPERIMENTS ON SOUND-PENDULUM EXPERIMENTS FINISHED - MOKU-A-WEO-WEO HEIGHT OF MAUNA KEA-SURVEY OF THE SUMMIT FINISHED 119-.76

CHAPTER V.

DEPARTURE FROM PENDULUM PEAK SYMPTOMS OF THE MOUNTAIN -SICKNESS ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA-DESCENT OF THE MOUNTAIN -ARRIVAL AT KILAUEA - DESCENT OF MESSRS. BUDD AND ELD-LOSS OF A KANAKA-SURVEY OF KILAUEA- SULPHUR-BANK-CIRCUIT OF THE CRATER-THIRD CRATER-LUA PELE-DR. JUDD'S DESCENT INTO THE CRATER-HIS PERILOUS ADVENTURES-VIEW OF THE ERUPTION- SURVEY OF THE FIERY LAKE-BLACK LEDGE-QUANTITY OF MATTER DISCHARGED- NEW DISPOSITION OF PARTIES-RETURN TO THE COAST-LUA PELE-DEEP CREVICE- KALANOKAMO PIT AND CONE CR.ATERS - MAP OF THE SOUTHEAST PORTION OF HAWAII-ALEALEA-IKI PANAU RECENT ERUPTION TIMBER FELLED BY LAVA- TRUNCATED CONES ON THE LAVA-NAMES OF THE CONE-CRATERS-KEKAHUNANUI- COURSE OF THE STREAM OF LAVA-CRATERS NEAR THE COAST-WHITE OWL-PUNA— KANAKIKI-VOLCANIC SAND-HILLS-CHRYSOLITE-OLD AND NEW LAVA-VIEW FROM THE SAND-HILLS-KEEAU-TRAITS OF NATIVE CHARACTER -MODE OF RECKONING DISTANCES-RETURN TO HILO-PANDANUS TREE AND ITS USES-DERANGED NATIVE-

Viii CONTENTS.

PENDULUM EXPERIMENTS BEGUN— DISCREPANCIES IN THEM— APPARATUS REMOVED TO PANEO— STOPPAGE OF THE CLOCK— NEW DISTURBANCES IN THE EXPERIMENTS- APPARATUS REMOVED TO MOUNT KANUHA— THE EXPERIMENTS ARE SUCCESSFUL.

177—210

CH A P TE R VI.

ASCENT OF MAUNA KEA BY DR. PICKERING AND MR. BRACKENRIDGE— "LONG ROAD"— CASTLE'S STATION CAVE LOFTY PLAIN TERMINAL PEAKS DESCENT OF THE MOUNTAIN FATE OF MR. DOUGLASS PUAHAI MR CASTLE'S RESIDENCE THEIR RETURN TO HILO-SURVEY OF HILO BAY— ACCIDENT OF THE LAUNCH— OCCUPATION OF THE OFFICERS LEFT IN THE VINCENNES— THEY ARE ENTERTAINED BY KANUHA— KANUHA AND FAMILY ENTERTAINED ON BOARD SUGAR MANUFACTURE COFFEE PLANTATIONS— CULTURE OF SUGAR AND COFFEE INTRODUCED BY MR. GOODRICH— THEY ARE NEGLECTED AND DISCOURAGED BY HIS SUCCESSOR— MR. COAN'S PAROCHIAL CHARGE SCHOOLS AT HILO WAILUKU FALLS TACCA INDIGO SANDALWOOD RETURN OF MR. BRACKENRIDGE— EXPEDITION OF MESSRS. BRINSMADE AND DRAYTON —LAVA STREAM— PAHUHALI ROAD— GREAT FLOOD OF LAVA— DISTRICT OF WAIMEA— DISTRICT OF KOHALA— SCHOOL OF BLACKFISH— VISIT OF MR. DRAYTON TO KtLAUEA —DR. PICKERING'S VISIT TO KILAUEA-COMPARISON OF MAUNA KEA AND MAUNA LOA —GREAT SWELL OF THE SEA IN 1837 EARTHQUAKES CLOSE OF OUR OPER.ATIONS DESCRIPTION OF THE BAY OF HILO - UNFOUNDED COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE SAILORS 213-247

CHAPTER VII.

MESSRS. PICKERING, DRAYTON, AND BRACKENRIDGE SAIL FOR MAUI— DEPARTURE OF THE VINCENNES FROM HILO— HER ARRIVAL AT LAHAINA— DESCRIPTION OF MAUI— VISIT TO THE KING KING'S PALACE— TOWN OF LAHAINA— PRIVATE APARTMENTS OF THE KING— HIS WIFE— EXCURSION TO THE SEMINARY OF WAILUKU— WEST MAUI— BUILDINGS OF THE SEMINARY— HABITS AND DRESS OF THE SCHOLARS— COURTSHIP BY LETTER— MERITS AND DEFECTS OF THE SEMINARY— MR. BAILY'S RESIDENCE— SAND- HILLS—MOUND OF HUMAN BONES— RETURN TO LAHAIN.4— ONE OF OUR BOATS LOST- ISLAND OF KAHOOLA WE SEMINARY OF LAHAINALUNA DISADVANTAGES OF ITS POSITION— ITS ORIGINAL SYSTEM— CHANGES IN THE SYSTEJI— ITS PROBABLE FAILURE APPEARA.^CE OF THE SCHOLARS— IMPROVEMENTS PROPOSED IN IT— SURVEY OF THE COASTS OF LAHAINA— ITS POPULATION— CHURCH— DISTRICT OF WAILUKU— DISTRICT OF KULA— KING'S ENCOURAGEMENT OF THE CULTURE OF SUGAR— PERSEVERANCE OF THE N.\TIVES— LABOURS OF THE MISSIONARIES— POPULATION OF WAILUKU— TOUR OF

CONTENTS. JX

MESSRS. PICKERING, DRAYTON, AND ERACKENRIDGE— NORTH COAST OF MAUI— MOUNT HALEAKALA— MR LANE AND MINOR'S PLANTATION— CAVE— CRATER OF HALEAKALA WAILUKU PASS-LNFLUENCE OF BOOKS ON THE NATIVES NATIVE CHARACTER- REGENT KEKAULUOHI LIEUTENANT BUDD DESPATCHED ON A SURVEY— WE TAKE LEAVE OF MAUI— LANAI-ICHTHYOLOGY— SURF AND TIDES MOLOKAI ARRIVAL OF THE VINCENNES AT HONOLULU— RETURN OF THE PORPOISE 251-277

CHAPTER VIII.

PORPOISE SAILS FROM OAHU MANUEL RODRIGUEZ WALKER'S ISLAND MANHH- AR.ATICA SAKEN ISLAND SEA -GULL GROUP— ISLAND OF BARCLAY DE TOLLY WOLCONSKY— DEATH OF A KANAKA— TAWEREE— MARGARET'S ISLAND— FOUR CROWNS OF QUIROS— ARCHANGEL— ST. PABLO— INTERVIEW WITH THE NATIVES— RETURN TO ARATIC A— RESULTS OF THE BORING— THEORY OF CORAL ISLANDS— TIDAL OBSERVA- TIONS—INHABITANTS OF ARATICA— CANOE SPOKEN— ARRIVAL AT TAHITI— DOMESTIC QUARRELS OF THE QUEEN— MEETING OF THE DISTRICT SCHOOLS— MEETING OF THE AUXILIARY SOCIETIES— DISTURBANCE OF THE MEETING— POLICE OF PAPIETI— AMERI- CAN COMMERCE AT TAHITI— PORPOISE LEAVES TAHITI— MEETS THE TRADES— FLINT'S ISLAND STAYER'S ISLAND PENRHYN'S ISLAND ISLANDERS THEIR LANGUAGE THEIR TURBULENCE— APPEARANCE OF THE WOMEN— FEROCITY OF THE ISLANDERS— THEIR ARMS THEIR CANOES THEIR TALENT FOR HARANGUING LIEUTENANT- COMMANDANT RINGGOLD RESOLVES TO RETURN— CURRENTS AND WINDS— ARRIVAL AT HONOLULU RESULTS OF THE CRUISE PORPOISE FOUND TO NEED REPAIR EFFECTS OF THE LAPLACE TREATY— PREPAR.ATIONS FOR DEPARTURE— PRODUCTIONS OF THE H.iWAHAN GROUP— ITS FLORA— CLIMATE AND DISEASES 281—307

CHAPTER IX.

DEPARTURE FROM OAHU— SICKNESS OF THE CREW OF THE PORPOISE— SEARCH FOR UNKNOWN ISLANDS— CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT— BAR OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER— DETER- MINATION TO PROCEED TO THE NORTHWARD-DANGER OF THE VESSELS NEAR CAPE GRENVILLE— WRECK OF A JAPANESE JUNK— INDIAN CANOE STRAITS OF JUAN DE FUCA— INDIANS VISIT THE SHIP— THEIR APPEARANCE— MODE OF TAKING WILD-FOWL -PROTECTION ISLAND PORT DISCOVERY— INDIANS— THEIR MANNERS, ETC. THEIR CANOES— THEIR WARS-GENERAL ORDER— WOODS AROUND PORT DISCOVERY— INDIAN MESSENGER ^INDIAN BURIAL-PLACES DEPARTURE FROM PORT DISCOVERY PORT TOWNSEND PORT LAWRENCE APPLE -TREE COVE ADMIRALTY INLET PUGET SOUND ANCHOR.\GE AT NISQUALLY VISIT FROM MR. ANDERSON AND CAPTAIN VOL. IV. C

X CONTENTS.

M'NIEL SCENERY AT NISQUALLY PLAN OF OUR OPERATIONS VISIT TO FORT NISQUALLY MISSION PUGET SOUND COMPANY MOUNT RAINIER PRESENT OF BULLOCKS FROM MR. ANDERSON -STEAMER BEAVER— LIEUTENANT JOHNSONS PARTY SET OUT— DEPARTURE OF CAPTAIN WILKESS PARTY— RIVER >-ISQUALLY— CAMP AT SHUTES RIVER— BUTE PRAIRIE— CHICKEELES RIVER-COVVLITZ FARM— MR. FORREST'S HOSPITALITY— CLIMATE OF COWLITZ— SIMON PLUMONDON— NATIVE MODE OF DRESS- ING LE.ATHER— EMBARKATION ON THE COWLITZ RIVER-ITS SHORES-SUPPOSED BEDS OF COAL ENTRANCE INTO THE COLUMBIA RIVER MOUNT COFFIN OAK POINT —ST. HELEN'S REACH TONGUE POINT ASTORIA E.XCURSION TO POINT ADAMS- MISSIONARIES AT CLATSOP CLATSOP VILLAGE PUNISHMENT OF A MURDERER VOYAGE TO VANCOUVER— TONGUE POINT INDIAN MEDlClNE-MAN- COFFIN ROCK— INDI.AN MOURNING— WARRIOR POINT— CALLAPUYA—VILL.AGE OF VANCOUVER— FORT VANCOUVER— DR. M'LAUGHLIN— COMPANY'S ESTABLISHMENT-BUSINESS TRANSACTED AT VANCOUVER CONDITION OF THE COMPANY'S SERVANTS AND DEPENDANTS HOSPITABLE RECEPTION OF THE MISSIONARIES— HALF-BREED CHILDREN MORALS- CROPS FARM DAIRY FARM OLD FORT VANCOUVER GRIST AND SAW MILLS MANUFACTURE OF AXES-SUDDEN RISE OF THE RIVER PARTY OF YOUNG AMERI- CANS 311—361

CHAPTER X.

DEPARTURE FROM VANCOUVER— BANKS OF THE WILLAMETTE-BOAT-BUILDERS-OAK ISLANDS FALLS OF THE WILLAMETTE MISSIONARIES SALMON-FISHERY INDIAN VILLAGE— FLOODS OF THE RIVER— CHAMPOOING— MR. JOHNSON AND OTHER SETTLERS —THEIR DESIRE FOR LAWS— MICHAEL LA FRAMBOISE— MR. BACHELET— METHODIST MISSION— DR. BABCOCK LANDS OF THE MISSION CONFERENCE IN RELATION TO LAWS— VISIT THE "MILL" PLANS OF THE MISSIONARIES MR. HINES'S SELECTION OF LAND EXTENT OF THE MISSIONARY FIELD CROSSING OF THE WILLAMETTE O'NEILL'S FARM YAM HILLS GAY'S RESIDENCE AND CHARACTER— FARM OF A SON OF DR. M'LAUGHLIN FLOODS Y'OUNG'S FARM CATTLE IMPORTED FROM CALIFORNI.A— BONES OF THE MASTODON— RETURN TO CHAMPOOING— VISIT FROM THE SETTLERS-ROCKY RIDGE— DR. BAILEY'S FARM— MRS. BAILEY— INDIAN TREATMENT OF THE SICK— WALKER'S FARM— BOAT-BUILDERS' CAMP— RETURN TO VANCOUVER MR OGDEN AND HIS VOYAGEURS— NORTHERN POSTS OF THE COMPANY— ADVANTAGES OF THE TERRITORY FOR GRAZING— PRICE OF CATTLE— VALUE OF LABOUR— ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE WILLAMETTE COUNTRY HABITS AND SPECIES OF THE SALMON— DWELLINGS OF THE INDIANS— THEIR GAMES OF CHANCE— KLACKAMUS VILLAGE THEIR MODE OF BURIAL THEIR MEDICINE -MEN INDIAN PREJUDICES THEY CAUSE THE MURDER OF MR. BLACK— MR. OGDEN OFFERS A CONVEY'ANCE TO COWLITZ— CHIEF OF AN EXTINCT TRIBE— REASONS FOR THE DECAY OF THE INDIAN

CONTENTS. ^

POPULATION -DEPARTURE FROM VANCOUVER-EMBARKATION ON THE COLUMBIA- ENTRANCE INTO THE COWLITZ-ARRIVAL AT COWLITZ FARM -MR, FORREST AND TH£ CHRONOMETER-CHICKEELES RIVER AND INDIANS-RETURN TO NISQUALLY.

365—400

CHAPTER XI.

SCIENTIFIC OPERATIONS AT NISQUALLY- FACILITIES TENDERED BY MR. OGDEN - MR. DRAYTON ORDERED TO ACCOMPANY HIM-MR. DRAYTON'S PREVIOUS RESEARCHES -PREPARATIONS FOR THE EXPEDITION -BOATS -PACKAGES AND MODE OF TRANS- PORTATION-TRADE AT MR. OGDEN'S POSTS- DEPARTURE OF MR. DRAYTON FROM VANCOUVER CASCADES CASCADE MOUNTAINS-PORTAGES-GUMMING THE BOATS -SUNKEN FOREST - RATTLESNAKES - METHODIST MISSION - INDIANS WITHIN ITS SPHERE-THE DALLES— MODE OF CURING FISH THERE-MODE OF FISHING-DESCRIP- TION OF THE DALLES-SYSTEM OF THE HUDSON BAY COMPANY-PORTAGE AT THE DALLES-MISSIONARY EFFORTS-IMPROVIDENCE OF THE INDIANS- DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY-ITS CLIMATE-WISHAM-CHUTES RIVER-JOHN DAY'S RIVER-END OF THE WOODS-HIEROGLYPHIC ROCKS-BURIAL-PLACE-GRAND RAPIDS- WINDMILL ROCK —ARRIVAL OF MR DRAYTON AT WALLAWALLA-CHARACTER AND CONDITION OF THE COMPANY'S SERVANTS-SEPARATION FROM MR OGDEN - VISIT TO DR. WHITMAN- MISSIONARY STATIONS OF THE AMERICAN BOARD -WAIILAPTU-GRANDE RONDE- FLAG OF PEACE -CONDITION OF THE MISSIONARIES- CLIMATE-TREES-PROSPECTS OF THE MISSION-THEIR SCHOOL-INDIAN FARMING-BLUE MOUNTAINS-HOT WINDS- MODE OF FISHING AT WALLA WALLA-ARRIVAL OF INDIANS- FALL OF THE COLUMBIA —WALLA WALLA AND NEZ PERCE TRIBES-THEIR MODE OF DRESSING SKINS -MODE OF CARRYING THEIR CHILDREN - MEDICINE -WOMAN - CUSTOMS IN RELATION TO FEMALES-GREAT FALLS OF THE COLUMBIA-COMPARISON OF THE COLUMBIA AND SNAKE RIVERS-MR. DRAYTON LEAVES WALLAWALLA-INDIANS AT PRAYER-EXTOR- TION BY THE INDIANS-THEIR ATTEMPTS AT THEFT-RETURN OF MR. DRAYTON TO

VANCOUVER ^„, ^„„

403—432

CHAPTER XII.

BAKERY AT NISQUALLY- PROGRESS OF THE SURVEYS -LOSS OF AN EYE-PIECE - FRUITLESS SEARCH FOR IT-SURVEY OF HOOD'S CANAL-CELEBRATION OF FOURTH OF JULY- VISIT FROM DR. M'LAUGHLIN- MOUNT RAINIER AND OTHER SNOWY MOUN- TAINS-EXPEDITION TO THE BUTE PRAIRIES-FARM OF THE COMPANY AT NISQUALLY -SURVEY OF PUGET SOUND-RETURN OF LIEUTENANT JOHNSON'S PARTY-DISADVAN- TAGES OF THE POST AT NISQUALLY-NISQUALLY INDIANS-LIEUT£NANT JOHNSON'S

Xll

CONTENTS.

OPERATIONS-EQUIPMENT OF HIS PARTY— HIS GUIDE— HIS FIRST CAMP— HIS SECOND CAMP— PUYALLUP RIVER-DIFFICULT PATHS-LARGE ARBOR VIT^ TREES-SMALOCHO RIVER LOSS OF CAMP EQUIPAGE GREAT SIZE OF THE SPRUCE TREES— LA TETE MOUNTAIN— LITTLE PRAIRIE— CAMP AT THE EDGE OF THE SNOW— DISTANT VIEW OF MOUNT RAINIER SUMMIT OF THE RIDGE ACCIDENT TO THE CHRONOMETER INDIANS DISMISSED SMALOCHO RIVER FIRE IN THE WOODS YAKIMA TRIBE INTERVIEW WITH ITS CHIEF-HE EXCHANGES HORSES— ANOTHER VIEW OF MOUNT RAINIER— SPOKANE INDIANS— YAKIMA RIVER— VERY ELEVATED GROUNDS DESCENT TOWARDS THE COLUMBIA— COLUMBIA RIVER— PISCHOUS RIVEK^INDIAN CULTIVATION VIEW OF THE COLUMBIA POINT DE BOIS OKONAGAN INDIANS HIGH PRAIRIE- MOUNT ST. PIERRE— FORT OKONAGAN— FORT THOMPSON— ARRIVAL OF MR. MAXWELL —FOOD OF THE INDIANS, AND OF THE COMPANY'S SERVANTS— AMUSEMENT OF THE INDIANS DEPARTURE FROM FORT OKONAGAN LIEUTENANT JOHNSON LOSES HIS WAY— GRASSY PRAIRIE GRANDE COULEE ARTIFICIAL HORIZON BROKEN— LIEUTE- NANT JOHNSON LEAVES THE PARTY THE PARTY ARRIVES AT FORT COLVILLE LIEUTENANT JOHNSON'S RIDE UP THE SPOKANE MISSIONARY STATION OF CHIMI- KAINE— CORNELIUS, CHIEF OF THE SPOKANE TRIBE— SINGULAR PROPHECY— LIEUTE- NANT JOHNSON'S ARRIV.A.L AT FORT COLVILLE 435-4C8

CHAPTER XIII.

CONTINUATION OF LIEUTENANT JOHNSON'S TOUR— FORT COLVILLE— KETTLE FALLS— QUIARLPI INDIANS— HEIGHT OF FORT COLVILLE ABOVE THE SEA— ITS CLIMATE-ITS AGRICULTURE— SPOKANE INDIANS— THEIR MODE OF LIFE— THEIR PHYSICAL CHARAC- TER—THEIR DRESS— THEIR GOVERNMENT AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS— AUTHORITY OF THEIR CHIEFS THEIR PUNISHMENTS THEIR SUPERSTITIONS THEIR CALENDAR- OPERATIONS OF THE HUDSON BAY CO.MPANY IN THE NORTH OUTPOSTS OF COL- VILLE-FORT CHILCOTIN— FORT GEORGE— FORT THOMPSON— FORT ST. JA.MES— NORTH- ERN INDIANS— TAKALI AND ATNAHS— THEIR DRESS— THEIR HABITATIONS-THEIR FOOD —THEIR MODE OF FISHING— THEIR FUNERAL RITES— THEIR MEDICINE-MEN- ERASER'S RIVER LIEUTENANT JOHNSON'S PARTY LEAVES FORT COLVILLE MISSIONARY ST.\TION AT CHIMIKAINE CHARACTER OF THE NEIGHBOURING INDIANS THEIR TREATMENT OF FEMALES THEIR BURIALS— THEIR MARRIAGES— DEPARTURE FROM THE MISSION— ADVENTURE .AT A CAMP OF SPOKANE INDIANS— INDIANS TRAVELLING KOOSKOOSKEE INDIANS— MISSION AT LAPWAI MR. SPALDING— HIS EXERTIONS TO CIVILIZE THE INDIANS— FREQUENT VISITS OF THE OREGON INDIANS TO THE UNITED STATES— DEPARTURE FROM LAPW.AI- INDIAN FARMS HALF-BREEDS MIGRATION OF THE BUFFALO SNAKE RIVER SANDY DESERT CCEUR D'ALENE NEZ PERCE INDIANS INDIANS AROUND LAPWAI— SAW-MILL-DECREASE OF WILD ANIMALS— MR. HALE'S TOUR AND REMARKS— FALLS OF THE PELUSE— LEGEND RELATING TO THEM—

CONTENTS. ^- jj

WALLAWALLA LANGUAGES OF INDIANS YAKIMA RIVER- MISERABLE GROUP OF SQUAWS-SLOW COMMUNICATION OF NEWS IN OREGON— NUMEROUS RATTLESNAKES -SPIPEN RIVER -TIDIASS CAMP- PRAIRIES-LITTLE PRAIRIE -SMALOCHO RIVER- RETURN TO NISQUALLY-EASTERN INDIANS OF OREGON -BLACKFEET- SHOSHONES- CROWS-BONACKS-YOUTAS-TRIBES ALLIED TO THE BONACKS- MONKEY INDIANS- APACHES-PRESSURE OF THE TRIBES TOWARDS THE SOUTH-ITS PROBABLE CAUSES.

471—504

CHAPTER XIV.

RETURN FROM THE SURVEYS-NEW LAND EXPEDITION FITTED OUT-LEAVE-TAKING -DEPARTURE FROM NISQUALLY - ANXIETY RESPECTING THE PEACOCK - PRAISE- WORTHY SPIRIT OF THE OFFICERS AND CREW-VASHON'S ISLAND-NEW DUNGENESS -THE PORPOISE JOINS THE VINCENNES-OPERATIONS OF THE PORPOISE-COMMENCE- MENT BAY-PORT ORCHARD-PORT MADISON-CATHOLIC MISSION -METEOK-PENN'S COVE -GOOD EFFECTS OF THE MISSIONARY EFFORTS - FORTIFICATIONS OF THE INDIANS-MINERAL SPRING-PORT GARDNER-SACHET INDIANS-THEIR DRESS-THEIR DISEASES-DECEPTION PASSAGE-PASSAGE INTO BELLINGHAM BAY-INDIAN TRIBES- FRASERS RIVER-PLANS OF FURTHER OPERATIONS-BOAT EXPEDITION ACROSS THE STRAITS-NEWS OF THE LOSS OF THE PEACOCK-CHANGE OF PLANS-MESSAGE SENT TO ASTORIA-VINCENNES AND PORPOISE SAIL FROM NEW DUNGENESS -PORT SCAR- BOROUGH-CLASSET INDIANS-THEIR MODE OF TAKING WHALES-DEPARTURE FROM THE STRAITS OF DE FUCA-DE FUCA'S PILLAR-PORPOISE PARTS COMPANY -SOUND- INGS ON THE COAST -CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT - SHIP OROZIMBO - MEETING WITH CAPTAIN HUDSON-SAILING DIRECTIONS FOR THE COLUMBIA RIVER-DETAILS OF THE PEACOCK'S DISASTER -WANT OF GOOD PILOTS - PERILOUS POSITION OF THE PEA- COCK'S BOATS-ALL THE OFFICERS AND CREW SAFELY LANDED-THEIR KIND RECEP- TION BY THE OFFICERS OF THE HUDSON BAY COMPANY AND THE MISSIONARIES- NEW DISPOSITION OF THE SQUADRON - PORPOISE ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER - VINCENNES SAILS FOR SAN FRANCISCO 507-507

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. VOLUME IV.

PLATES.

Kamehameha.

Pali, OAHtr. Hanapepe Valley. TuTui Trees. Temple, Kaili.

MoKU-A-WEO-WEO.

Crater, Kilauea.

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by Welch and

Walter, 3

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. B. Neagle, 55 Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. Andrews, 66 Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. A. Rolph, 75 Sketched by T. R. Peale. Engraved by F. Humphreys, 106 Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by J.

Andrews, 1 1 n

Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by .Jordan and

Halpin, jg^

Camp oiy Pendulum Peak. Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by N.

Gimbrede, 255

Crater op Moku-a-weo-weo. Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by

J. Andrews, 270

^^^^^^- Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by Sherman

and Smith, jYY

Walls of Crater, Kilauea. Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. F. E.

Prudhomrae, jg^

Kekauluohi. Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by Welch and

Walter, 2gj

Crater op Haleakala. Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. Andrews, 272 Concomely's Tomb. Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by W. E. Tucker, 343

Chinook Lodge. Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. W. Dodson' 365

Wreck op the Peacock. Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by T. House, 524

VIGNETTES.

Wailuku Falls. Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. L Pease, 227

Chickeeles Fishery. Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by T.

House, ggg

Falls of the Willamette. Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by Jordan and

Halpin, 37Q

XVI

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Stone Quoits. Poe-Eating. Cook's Monument. Caxabashes. Pendulum Peak. Keaweehu. Blowing Cone. Lava Flow.

Sand-Hills. Pandanus Tree. Lava Jet. Cattle-Pen.

Edible Fern. Native House. Fish-hooks. Fort Vancouver. Rocking Cradle. Indian Dice. Mission House. Fishing Huts. Dalles. Child's Heads, Fort Walla walla. Indian Costujie (male),

W O O D - C U T S.

From the Collection.f Engraved by J. J. Butler, 51

Drawn bj' A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. J. Butler, 92

Drawn by T. R. Peale.f Engraved by J. H. Manning, 100

From the Collection.! Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 115

Drawn by-C. Wilkes, IJ. S. N. Engraved by R. S.Gilbert, 155

Drawn by C.Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 161

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 174 Drawn by C. 'Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by T. H.

Mumford, 198

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. J. Butler, 204

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. J. Butler, 206

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 210 Drawn by Wm. D. Brackenridge. Engraved by R. S.

Gilbert, 218

Engraved by J. J. Butler, 247

Engraved by J. J. Butler, 277

Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 307

Engraved by J. J. Butler, 349

Drawn by J. Drayton. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Drawn by J. Drayton. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Drawn by J. Drayton. Drawn by J. Drayton. Drawn by J. Drayton. Drawn by J. Drayton. Drawn by J. Drayton.

Engraved by T. H. Mumford, 361 Engraved by R. S. Gilbert,

Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Engraved by J. J. Butler, Engraved by T. H. Mumford, Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Engraved by R. S. Gilbert,

Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Indian Costume (female). Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Music.

Indian Lodge. Mounds.

Fish-hooks. Mount Rainier.

Mount Rainier.

Indian Baskets. Mat Hut. Tatouche George, De Fuca's Pillar.

392 400 410 411 415 417 425 426 427 432

Drawn by J. Drayton.

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert,

Drawn by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by T. H.

Mumford, 442

From the Collection .f Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 445

Drawn by R. E. Johnson, U. S. N. Engraved by R. S.

Gilbert, 451

Drawn by R. E. Johnson, U. S. N. Engraved by R. S.

Gilbert, 455

From the Collection.f Engraved by J. H. Manning, 468 Drawn by J. Di-ayton. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 504

Drawn by C.Wilkes, U.S.N. Engraved by Clarke, 516

Drawn by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by R. S.

Gilbert, 527

BIAP. Hawaiian Group. Engraved by Sherman and Smith. Title.

Those marked with a f, were drawn on the wood by J. H. Manning.

CHAPTER I.

CONTENTS.

ARRIVAL OF THE KING AT HONOLULU— OUR VISIT TO HIM— KEKAULUOHI— DWELLINGS AND GARDENS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS— DWELLINGS OF THE MISSIONARIES— MISSIONARY PRESS— SEAMEN'S CHAPEL— POLITICAL INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS— MR. RICHARDS ENGAGED AS DIPLOMATIC AGENT— SUPREME COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENT- SECOND INTERVIEW WITH THE KING— HISTORY OF THE EVENTS THAT LED TO THE LAPLACE TREATY— FIRST ARRIVAL OF CATHOLIC PRIESTS— THEY ARE HOSPITABLY RECEIVED— THEY ARE SUSPECTED OF PROMOTING A REBELLION, AND EXPELLED— RUS- SELL TREATY— ATTEMPT TO INTRODUCE PRIESTS UNDER ITS SANCTION— UNITED ACTION OF CAPTAINS DU PETIT THOUARS AND BELCHER MORE PRIESTS ARRIVE— PENAL LAWS AGAINST CATHOLICS ENACTED— THEY ARE REPEALED AT THE INSTANCE OF THE AMERICAN MISSIONARIES— ARRIVAL OF CAPTAIN LAPLACE— HIS MANIFESTO— HIS DEMANDS— HIS PROSCRIPTION OF THE MISSIONARIES— CONDUCT OF THE FOREIGN RESIDENTS, AND OF THE NATIVE CHIEFS SIGNATURE OF THE TREATY LAPLACE DEMANDS AND OBTAINS A COMMERCIAL TREATY— HE LANDS IN ARMS TO CELEBRATE MASS-CONSEQUENCES OF THE LAPLACE TREATY— THE KING'S FEELINGS IN RELATION TO IT— HIS DESIRE TO BE RECOGNISED BY THE UNITED STATES— HIS REMONSTRANCE TO THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT— STATE OF CATHOLICISM— WRITTEN CONSTITUTION OF HAWAII— ADMINISTRATION OF THE LAWS— CRIMINAL PROCESS— ANCIENT LAWS— SUC- CESSION TO THE THRONE— FEUDAL TENURES— PUNISHMENTS— TABOOS— PROMULGATION OF LAWS— ORIGIN OF FIEFS— DIVISION OF LANDS— EFFECTS OF THE NEW LAWS— TAXES —REVENUES— EXEMPTION FROM TAX— CRIMES— HAWAIIAN MYTHOLOGY— TRADITIONS— ASTRONOMY— CALENDAR-IDEA OF ECLIPSES— KNOWLEDGE OF NAVIGATION— FEATS IN SWIMMING- SOCIAL ATTACHMENT AND TIES— INDOLENCE ASCRIBED TO THE NATIVES— THEIR AMUSEMENTS— HOLUA— PLAYING IN THE SURF— DANCES CARDS SEE-SAW- NATIVE PHYSICIANS AND MEDICINE.

Dra»mby.^TA^2ie

IK Ais IB HI Ji m 31 m A

KING OF THE HAWAIIAN I?

NARRATIVE

THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

CHAPTER I.

HAWAIIAN GROUP. 184 0.

The king, Kamehameha III., who had given orders that he should be sent for as soon as the Vincennes arrived, reached Honolulu on the 29th September, from Maui. The next day I waited upon him, ac- companied by our consul, Mr. Brinsmade, and by many of the officers and naturalists, at his quarters near the fort. A soldier dressed in a scarlet uniform stood on guard at the door. We were ushered into the audience-chamber, and presented to the king, whom we found seated in the midst of his retinue. The apartment was composed of two large rooms with low ceilings, communicating by folding doors. On the right of the king was Kekauluohi, a daughter of Kamehameha I., who acts as prime minister ; and there were also present, among others, Kekuanaoa, the governor of Oahu, Mr. Richards, who is the king's interpreter and adviser, Haalilio, John Young, and the officers of the body-guard.

The king was dressed in a blue coat, white pantaloons, and vest. We afterwards understood that he had prepared himself to receive us in full costume, but on seeing us approaching in undress uniform, he had taken off his robes of state.

4 HAWAIIANGROUP.

The appearance of the king is prepossessing : he is rather robust, above the middle height, has a good expression of countenance, and pleasing manners.

The person who attracted our attention most, was Kekauluohi. This lady is upwards of six feet in height ; her frame is exceedingly large and well covered with fat. She was dressed in yellow silk, with enormously large gigot sleeves, and wore on her head a tiara of beautiful yellow feathers interspersed with a few of a scarlet colour.* Above the feathers appeared a large tortoise-shell comb, that confined her straight black hair. Her shoulders were covered with a richly- embroidered shawl of scarlet crape. She sat in a large arm-chair, over which was thx'own a robe made of the same kind of yellow feathers as decked her tiara. Her feet were encased in white cotton stocking-s and men's shoes. She was altogether one of the most remarkable-looking personages I have ever seen.

The governor was handsomely dressed in a uniform of blue and gold.

The conversation was carried on with ease through the interpreta- tion of Mr. Richards, and left upon our minds a favourable impression of the intelligence of the royal family of these islands. One thing was certain, namely, that, in regard to personal size, they are unsur- passed by any family that has ever come under my notice.

I next returned the visits I had received from the foreign residents, in which duty I was accompanied by our consul. I found many of them living in very comfortable stone houses, which were surrounded with young plantations of ornamental shrubs and trees. These plan- tations, with their gardens, are kept in a thriving state by means of irrigation. The water for this purpose is raised by windmills, that work pumps, from wells about ten feet in depth. It was represented to me that the water in these wells rose and fell with the flow and ebb of the tide ; but after frequent trials of that in the rear of the house which I occupied, I could detect no variation greater than an inch or two. The wells are sunk through the bed of coral on which the town is built, and water is every where found beneath it. The

* These feathers are among the most celebrated productions of these islands, and some idea of their cost may be formed when it is stated that each bird yields only a (sw, and that some thousands are required to form a head-dress. The wreath worn by Kekauluohi, was valued at $250, and her robe at $2,500. The birds (Melithreptes pacifica) are taken by means of birdlime, made from the pisonia, and the catching of them is practised as a trade by the mountaineers. The wearing of these feathers is a symbol of high rank.

HAWAIIAN GROUP.

water is not perfectly fresh, and many persons have that which they drink, brought from the valley of Nuuanu.

I also had the pleasure of visiting the missionaries ; and as many misrepresentations have been published, and much misunderstanding exists, relative to their domiciles, I trust I may be excused if I give a short description of their interior, to set the matter at rest. It will I think be sufficient to satisfy any one that they are not as luxurious in their furniture as has been sometimes represented. Their houses are generally one story and a half high, situated fifteen or twenty paces within an unpretending gate, and the garden is surrounded by adobe walls about seven or eight feet high. Some of the houses are of stone, but most of them are of wood ; they are from twenty to thirty feet square, and twenty feet high, and have the appearance of having been added to as the prosperity of the mission increased. The front door opens into the principal room, which is covered with a mat or common ingrain carpeting, and furnished with a table, a few Windsor chairs, a rocking-chair, and sofa, all of wood. There is a very high mantel, but no fire-place, the latter not being needed. On the mantel are placed four glass lamps, each with one burner, and m the centre a small china vase, with a bunch of flowers in it. Several coloured scriptural prints hang on the walls about a foot below the ceiling ; on the table were a few devotional books.

The eating-room adjoins the principal room, and in one corner stands a cupboard, or an old sideboard, very much the worse for wear. This contained the common earthenware used at meals. A native girl, or woman, is all the "help;" and both the master and mistress take a part in many of the domestic duties. As to their fare, it is plain, simple, and wholesome, and always accompanied with a hearty welcome and cheerful, contented faces, at least, I found it so. The salaries of all, both clerical and secular members, are the same, namely, four hundred dollars for a family. How it is possible for them to clothe and maintain a family on such a stipend at Hono- lulu, I am unable to conceive. They receive no other compensation, nor are they allowed to hold any property for themselves, not even a cow. All must belong to the mission, and be paid for by it.

To several of the missionaries I feel indebted for unsolicited kindnesses, and I spent many agreeable hours in their society. I must bear testimony that I saw nothing but a truly charitable and Christian bearing towards others throughout my intercourse with them, and heard none but the most charitable expressions towards

6 HAWAIIAN GROUP.

their assailants. Heedless of ttie tongue of scandal, they pursued their duties with evenness of temper, and highly laudable good-will.

Near the - missionaries' dwellings is their printing establishment, under the superintendence of Mr. Rogers. Here they have three presses, which are generally in active employment. The workmen are all natives, and, from Mr. Rogers's account, they work very steadily, during the hours of labour, throughout the 3'ear. This occupation is considered as the road to preferment; for the know- ledge and habits of industry they acquire in it naturally raise them above their fellows, and they are soon required for the wants of the country, either in teaching schools or other employments under the government.

I Avas told that upwards of four reams of paper are printed daily, affording an extensive circulation of books in the native language. Eleven thousand copies of the whole Bible have been printed, and two weekly papers are published, one in English, called the Polyne- sian, the other in the Hawaiian language, which the natives generally read. They have likewise a book-bindery, under the direction of the society. Many tracts are also published, some of which are by native authors. Of these I cannot pass at least one without naming him. This is David Maro, who is highly esteemed by all who know him, and who lends the missionaries his aid, in mind as well as example, in ameliorating the condition of his countrymen, and checking licen- tiousness. At the same time he sets an example of industry, by farming with his own hands, and manufactures from his sugar-cane an excellent molasses.

Though not actually connected with the mission, the Seaman's Chapel, and its pious and enlightened pastor, the Rev. Mr. Diell, assist in doing great good among the sailors who frequent the port. The chapel is a neat wooden building, and is chiefly frequented by the foreign residents and sailors in port. From its cupola, on the Sabbath, always waves the Bethel flag; and it is generally well attended. The Rev. Mr. Diell, to the regret of all, was about return- ing home. He was in the last stage of consumption, but hoped to reach his native land before his dissolution, which he felt and knew was rapidly approaching. I regretted to hear that in this hope he w-as disappointed, having died on the homeward passage. He was truly a pattern of resignation, and was beloved by the wdiole commu- nity. He had done much, I have been told, to soften the asperities between the contending factions, and to arrest the course of vice,

HAWAIIAN GROUP.

which, on his arrival, he found stalking abroad, regardless of moral laws, and setting at nought all those enacted by the government for the protection of the peace and quietness of the well-disposed, as well as for punishing those who were guilty of crime.

As the natives, under the tuition of the missionaries, emerged from barbarism, instead of deriving encouragement from their intercourse with foreigners, difficulties were thrown in the way. The chief agents in the vexations to which the government has been exposed, are the designing individuals who hold the situation of consuls of the two great European powers ; and through their baleful influence the difiiculties have been continually increasing, until, finally, these islands and their government have been forced upon the attention of the whole civihzed world. All the laws and regulations established by the kings and chiefs for repressing immorality and vice, were not only derided, but often set at open defiance, because they clashed with the interests of some of the individuals settled here. If attempts were made to enforce them, official remonstrances were resorted to, accompanied by threats of punishment. As this, for a long time, did not follow, the matter came to be considered as a systematic course of bullying, which soon lost its effijct, and remained unheeded. When these idle threats failed to effect their object, the new one of the arrival of a man-of-war was held out as a terror. In these disputes the missionaries seldom took a part, even in the way of advice, and left the chiefs to their own guidance. They did not feel themselves competent to give advice upon international questions, and, besides, considered them as of a temporal character ; for which reason they believed it their duty to abstain from any connexion with the disputes. They could not, however, avoid being as much surprised as the chiefs themselves were, at the continually renewed difficulties which were made by these troublesome officials, and which there was nothing in the laws or regulations to justify.

As to the threat of the coming of a man-of-war, the natives rather looked to it as the sure termination of the vexations to which they were exposed. They had formed their opinion of the character and probable course of action of the naval officers of either of the two great powers from the visit of Lord Byron in H. B. M. frigate Blonde. This vessel had been the bearer of the bodies of the late King Liho- liho and his wife from England, and her commander had made a most favourable impression upon the chiefs and people. They there-

8 H A W A I I A N G R O U P.

fore expected that on the arrival of another man-of-war, all existing difficulties would be removed, and that their good intentions and strict adherence to justice would be made manifest. In this expectation they were disappointed ; the British naval commanders who came afterwards were not BjTons, and were, with one or two exceptions, the willing tools of the designing consul. Influenced by his erroneous representations, they demanded apologies and concessions, and en- deavoured to dictate treaties. The regent and chiefs resisted these demands, and many disagreeable interviews occurred.

England was not the only nation whose ships of war were brought to aid in overawing the natives. A Frenchman, who claimed the title of consul, although not recognised as such by the king, persuaded the captain of a French frigate to insist upon his being acknowledged as a government agent. Thus while this half-civilized community was struggling to make advances in morals and religion, French and English men-of-war, alternately, and occasionally in concert, did all in their power to break down the laws and regulations by which alone the union of the native barbarism with the worst vices of civili- zation could be prevented.

In this state of things it became evident to the king and chiefs that they were in want of information in relation to international law, and they in consequence desired to obtain a competent person to give them advice on that subject. For this purpose they endeavoured to procure a suitable counsellor from the United States. Failing in this attempt, they requested the Rev. Mr. Richards, one of the missionaries, to undertake this duty.

The missionaries, as a body, seem to have thought it a duty to abstain from meddling with any temporal matters, but Mr. Richards was prevailed upon to serve. As respects the internal policy of the islands, no better guide than this gentleman could possibly have been chosen. But like the other missionaries he was but little versed and had no experience in the affairs of government. He was unused to the petty squabbling of the foreign officials, and his mind was far above the ignoble task of disputing with the revilers of all law and religion.

I had the pleasure of becoming intimately acquainted with Mr. Richards, in his private capacity, and enjoyed an opportunity of judg- ing as to the manner in which he performed his public functions; and I cannot but felicitate the government and people of Hawaii upon their

HAWAIIAN GROUP.

fortune in obtaining tiie services of one who has made such exertions in their behalf, and who is so well qualified for the responsible situation he holds.

Mr. Richards had, as missionary, been for years a resident of these islands, and was thus in close connexion with the king and chiefs in their spiritual concerns. That they should have desired his counsel in their temporal affairs, is a strong proof of the affection and esteem with which they regarded him, and is alike creditable to his character and the soundness of their judgment. It was not, however, to be received as an evidence of any undue influence of the missiona- ries in political questions; and from a close examination I am satisfied that no such influence exists. Mr. Richards, since his appointment, has no voice in council, and is merely an adviser on such questions as the council may consider as demanding an acquaintance with the usages of civilized nations.

The council, in which the government is in fact vested, is composed of thirteen persons ranking as chiefs of the highest order, four of whom are females.

When any subject demands their consideration, the facts and reasons, pro and con, are fully laid before the council, in a compre- hensive and simple manner, and the vote and decision of its members are had, without any further recourse to Mr. Richards. The subject is always acted upon with great deliberation, and frequently with much discrimination and judgment; for not only are the chiefs a strong-minded people, biit the female members of the council are also remarkable in this respect, and all appear desirous of doing what is right and proper.

An anecdote of what occurred at one of their deliberations, will, I think, illustrate their simple mode of coming to a proper decision, and show that when they are made to understand that any act or regu- lation will prove unjust, they are quite desirous to revise their own intended vote.

When they had under consideration the law relative to the descent of property, and previous to its final passage, each was, as usual, asked whether it should become a law. All had assented to its passage except one of the female members, who, when the interrogatory was put to her, laughed, but gave no answer. On being pressed, she said, " The law to which you have assented, has it not passed? My vote